06 Jun 4. Earliest Design: Polysemous Adjectives Constitute Separate Classes
Because the explained from the Inclusion, some adjectives are polysemous in a manner that for every experience drops towards a some other category of new classifications only shown. Envision like the adjective economic from inside the Analogy (1), frequent here as Example (9) for comfort. The 2 main sensory faculties of economic instantiate this new relational (sense in Analogy (9a)) plus the qualitative class (feel in Example (9b)), respectively.
Cases of normal polysemy between your intensional and you will qualitative groups also can be found, given that illustrated during the Instances (12) and you will (13)
Crucially in regards to our objectives, inside the all the sensory faculties the fresh new adjective shows the new services out-of each of the related kinds. Whenever put since good relational adjective, that isn’t gradable and cannot be taken for the a pre-affordable status (Example (10)). In the experiments you to definitely pursue, i aim during the trapping it hybrid behavior.
When utilized as good qualitative adjective, it’s gradable and it may be used predicatively (look for Example (11))
Antic features a couple of significant senses, an effective qualitative you to (equivalent to ‘dated, ancient‘) and you will an intensional you to definitely (equivalent to ‘former‘). Note once more you to definitely, when used in brand new intensional feel, it showcases features of your own intensional classification: It looks pre-nominally (Analogy (13a)) that is maybe not gradable (Analogy (13b)).
New group regarding the solution class, that experiences-relevant adjectives, along with brings up typical polysemy, particularly, anywhere between experiences-associated and you may qualitative adjectives, given that illustrated during the Examples (14) and you will (15). The brand new participial adjective sabut (‘known‘) keeps a conference-associated sense, add up to brand new verb conocer (‘know‘), and an excellent qualitative feel which is often translated due to the fact ‘wise‘. At exactly the same time, the deverbal adjective cridaner derived from cridar (‘so you’re able to shout‘) alternates anywhere between a conference-associated sense and you may a great qualitative feel.
Advice (14) and you will (15) portray cases of normal polysemy due to the fact, as well as become pulled regarding translations, there clearly was a logical change away from a transparent loved ones into knowledge so you can a good you to contains a more faraway regards to case. In the case of sabut the brand new family is obvious (in the event the a guy understands a lot, he’s wise); in the example of cridaner, a shirt qualifies with the adjective when it is such as loud-colored otherwise has actually an eccentric cut, so it progress the interest of people, given that shouting really does.
In this post, i merely imagine variety of polysemy you to slash over the classification pursued. Other types of polysemy that have typically started tackled in the literature won’t be noticed. Including, we’re going to not be worried about the newest polysemy portrayed in the Example (16), and therefore arguably possess more related to the new semantics of changed noun than just compared to new adjective (Pustejovsky 1995). Each of the latest uses out-of trist (‘sad‘) depicted from inside the Example (16) get into new qualitative class, so, contrary to the work from the Lapata (2000; Lapata (2001) quoted in the past, we really do not lose this new adjective given that polysemous about context of establish studies.
Considering the hybrid choices out of polysemous adjectives explained in the Point 3, we are able to assume which they operate in another way out of adjectives throughout the earliest classes. Such as, adjectives polysemous anywhere between good qualitative and you may an excellent relational use is always to exhibit more proof to own gradability than simply sheer relational adjectives, however, less than natural qualitative adjectives. Within this take a look at, polysemous adjectives belong to a class, including, the fresh qualitative-relational class, that’s distinct from the qualitative and relational kinds, usually exhibiting feature viewpoints which might be between that from the basic categories. Within area, i review of experiments investigations precisely that it design having typical polysemy. We are going to thus separate anywhere between five type of adjectives: qualitative, intensional, relational, polysemous ranging from good qualitative and you will an intensional discovering (intensional-qualitative), and you will polysemous between an effective qualitative and you will a good relational discovering (qualitative-relational). You will find one to polysemous category shed (intensional-relational). No instances of polysemy ranging from intensional and you can relational adjectives had been observed within our studies.